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GLIMR

GLIMR

Geosynchronous Littoral Imaging and Monitoring Radiometer (GLIMR)

NASA has selected a space-based instrument under its Earth Venture Instrument (EVI) portfolio that will make observations of coastal waters to help protect ecosystem sustainability, improve resource management, and enhance economic activity.

The selected Geosynchronous Littoral Imaging and Monitoring Radiometer (GLIMR) instrument, led by principal investigator Joseph Salisbury at the University of New Hampshire, Durham, will provide unique observations of ocean biology, chemistry, and ecology in the Gulf of Mexico, portions of the southeastern United States coastline, and the Amazon River plume – where the waters of the Amazon River enter the Atlantic Ocean.

NASA has selected a space-based instrument under its Earth Venture Instrument (EVI) portfolio that will make observations of coastal waters to help protect ecosystem sustainability, improve resource management, and enhance economic activity.

IMPACTS

IMPACTS

Investigation of Microphysics and Precipitation for Atlantic Coast-Threatening Snowstorms (IMPACTS)

New NASA research project employs an impressive array of technology to discern how and why intense bands of snow form in winter storms in order to supply forecasters with data to improve predictions of severe winter snowfall.

IMPACTS is carrying out several major field campaigns that will study how snow bands develop and grow in hazardous East Coast snowstorms, something that has not been the focus of a major research campaign in 30 years! The US East Coast has many large cities and population centers, so the snow from these snowstorms can have a big societal impact on transportation, commerce, and public safety. The data that IMPACTS collects will be used to improve how we forecast snow. Heavy snow falls from long narrow “snow bands” within storms. The unevenness of the snow bands within the storm is what makes predicting snowfall amounts so difficult. Which storms have strong snow bands and which storms do not? Can we measure snowfall from these narrow snow bands from space? Can we predict the location of the most intense snowfall? IMPACTS will help us find out! Better predictions mean communities can be proactive in protecting populations from oncoming hazards and disruptions.

“I have loved watching clouds and the sky for as long as I can remember. I have always loved doing outdoor activities such as skiing, hiking, biking and gardening, and understanding the weather, clouds and processes that create the rain and snow help me decide when and where to do those activities. Now as a scientist I not only get to admire the sky and the clouds, but learn about my favorite storms – snowstorms – and learn about them on all scales, down to the processes that make the snow and organize the snow into snowbands.” – Lynn McMurdie

Two NASA aircraft are being used by IMPACTS to go ‘snowstorm chasing’ during three wintertime field campaigns over a three-year period. The NASA ER-2 aircraft flies above the clouds at heights of more than 15 km (9 miles), and carries instruments such as radars, lidars, and microwave sensors that are similar to instruments on satellites now. The second aircraft is the NASA P-3B, and it flies within the snowstorm. The P3B carries instruments that directly sample characteristics of the snowstorm, such as the shapes and sizes of the snow crystals and the environment in which they form. These two aircraft fly coordinated patterns within, above, and around snowstorms as the storms develop, taking data so the scientists can learn exactly how intense snow bands develop within the storms. The data from the remote sensing instruments on the ER-2 aircraft will also help scientists improve our ability to measure snow from satellites.

 

IMPACTS collects data from a “satellite-simulating” ER-2 and in-situ measurements from a cloud penetrating P-3, augmented by ground-based radar and rawinsonde data, multiple NASA and NOAA satellites [including GPM, GOES-16, and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)], and computer simulations. The ER-2 and P-3 provide the flight-altitude and long-endurance capabilities and payload capacity needed for the combined remote sensing and in-situ measurements.

 
 

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CloudSat2

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IMPACTS

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Libera

Libera

NAAMESlogo

NAAMES

RaD-X

RaD-X

TROPICS

Fleet Photo

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New NASA research project employs an impressive array of technology to discern how and why intense bands of snow form in winter storms in order to supply forecasters with data to improve predictions of severe winter snowfall.

 
 

[fourcol_six]

Libera

Libera

Libera

 
 
https://lasp.colorado.edu/home/libera/

What causes the Earth to cool or warm?

LLibera is named after the daughter of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture. Libera is all about building on and connecting to other studies. Because of this relationship Libera is called a continuity mission, meaning it will continue the multi-decadal record of Earth’s outgoing mission NASA’s Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES). Libera will continue the mission of her mother, measuring Earth’s outgoing radiative energy.

These measurements of solar radiation that is reflected by Earth’s surface and atmosphere, and terrestrial radiation, that is emitted by the Earth and vented to space. When averaged over the time period and area of the globe and then compared with the incoming solar radiative energy, this provides an important assessment of the state of the climate system. If the outgoing radiation exceed incoming, the Earth cools; if incoming exceeds outgoing, it warms.

The Libera instrument will fly on NOAA’s operational Joint Polar Satellite System-3 (JPSS-3) satellite, which is scheduled to launch by December 2027.

“Libera will provide vital information on the state of Earth’s climate, including how it is changing and what are the causes. It will extend an important climate data record, increasing the value of this record for identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for global change.” Peter Pilewski PI, Libera

Understanding climate change and its causes is perhaps the greatest environmental challenge humankind has faced. Knowledge gained from Libera may be used to guide policy that aids current and future generations on how to mitigate and adapt to global change.

https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-selects-new-instrument-to-continue-key-climate-record

NASA has selected a new space-based instrument as an innovative and cost-effective approach to maintaining the 40-year data record of the balance between the solar radiation entering Earth’s atmosphere and the amount absorbed, reflected, and emitted. This radiation balance is a key factor in determining our climate: if Earth absorbs more heat than it emits, it warms up; if it emits more than it absorbs, it cools down.

 
 

MAIA

Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA)

The Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) represents the first time NASA has partnered with epidemiologists and health organizations to use space-based data to study human health and improve lives.

https://maia.jpl.nasa.gov/
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/multi-angle-imager-for-aerosols-maia/

The Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) investigation will seek to understand how different types of air pollution affect human health.

The Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) represents the first time NASA has partnered with epidemiologists and health organizations to use space-based data to study human health and improve lives.

 
 

NAAMES

NAAMES

North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES)

Tracking plankton ecosystems to rescue the balance between our sky and ocean
https://naames.larc.nasa.gov/
http://www.journalistatsea.com/

Predict change, manage Earth’s resources and mitigate impacts,…no this isn’t the new SimCity, this is the story of Plankton and NASA’s NAAMES project

Plankton are a vital food source for ocean life and also a key indicator of climate change. Plankton are very sensitive to the temperature of the ocean, so while plankton can impact the climate, the climate can also impact plankton. So, what makes plankton bloom every year, what determines the size and duration of blooms, how do they impact the atmosphere? How will the warming surface ocean temperatures predicted to happen over the 21st century threaten plankton life? Can we change our future with the most productive ocean ecosystem on Earth?

“Our environment is changing. Our climate is changing. Ocean ecosystems are directly linked to climate. It’s hard to imagine that organisms you can’t see make a difference, but they really do.” – Mike Behrenfeld, NAAMES principal investigator, Oregon State University

The NAAMES investigation aimed to find out how the atmosphere and the ocean are intertwined through that ultimate connector, plankton. Gases and aerosols from plankton are released into the atmosphere and become the seeds of clouds. Because marine clouds are an important part of the Earth’s climate, understanding why and how plankton blooms happen, and how they influence clouds, can help us understand the Earth’s climate.

NAAMES consisted of four joint ship and aircraft field campaigns from 2015-2018 that were each performed at a specific time of the year to target different parts of the annual plankton cycle. Ship-based measurements were taken to learn about how much and what types of plankton were present at different times of the year, how fast they lived and died, and how plankton changed the ocean source of gases and aerosols. Measurements from the overflying aircraft were taken to see how aerosol concentrations varied in the overlying air and how efficiently the aerosols seeded cloud formation. The collected data was studied to help us better understand this beautiful relationship between Plankton and clouds. You can predict climate future and societal impacts with NAAMES. Come take a journey with us!

https://naames.larc.nasa.gov/video/NAAMESoverview.mp4

Related Projects

ACT America

CloudSat2

CloudSat

DCOTTS

DCOTSS

EPOCH

GeoCarb

IMPACTS

IMPACTS

Libera

Libera

NAAMESlogo

NAAMES

RaD-X

RaD-X

TROPICS

Fleet Photo

Other Air News

The North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES) is a five year investigation to resolve key processes controlling ocean system function, their influences on atmospheric aerosols and clouds and their implications for climate.

 
 

Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)

OCO2Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO2/OCO3)

 https://ocov2.jpl.nasa.gov/

https://ocov3.jpl.nasa.gov/

 

OCO-2 and OCO-3 NASA’s twin carbon chasing satellites show us CO2 sources and sinks.

 

OCO-2 was launched on July 2, 2014 and was the first US satellite dedicated to measuring  atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from space, and it is still making measurements today! CO2 is a greenhouse gas, and it has been shown to be increasing due to human activities. OCO-2 has been measuring this change. The more CO2 that is in the air, the warmer the earth is becoming. This causes things like rising sea levels, melting glaciers and ice sheets, thawing permafrost, and droughts. Data from OCO-2 has already shown that tropical forests absorb CO2 in response to drought and warm temperatures, which would mean that CO2 will increase much faster in the future, speeding up the damaging effects of climate change. OCO-2 is critical to help us understand where the CO2 is coming from, how fast the emissions are increasing, and what we can do to reduce CO2 emissions to protect our planet.

“I definitely feel like there is an urgency to addressing Greenhouse Gasses and climate change. We’ve seen clearer information coming out about all the impacts in the world – sea ice and sea level, storms, etc. There is going to be so many impacts to people like food availability and water availability, that I think that it is important that we address this sooner rather than later. Making changes now to avoid emissions is going to more effective than adjusting to all the potential impacts. ” – Annmarie Eldering , Project Scientist, OCO-2

OCO-2 orbits around the earth from pole to pole. This lets it sample  what CO2 looks like over the entire planet and where emissions are the strongest. OCO-2 looks at reflected sunlight from the Earth’s surface and uses three spectrometers to measure gases in the atmosphere. Its data is used by scientists all over the world. Today, fossil fuel combustion and other human activities are currently contributing about 39 billion tons or 39 Gigatons of CO2 into the atmosphere each year. During the pandemic, many industries were closed, and cities and countries issued stay at home orders, keeping people off the road.

Scientists are using OCO-2 data to determine if there was an impact on CO2 emissions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The data from OCO-2 remains very valuable and the OCO-2 mission will continue to contribute to scientific investigations that are related to the global carbon cycle.

How are NASA’s OCO-3 and OCO-2 different? The OCO-3 spectrometer (instrument) is a duplicate of OCO-2, and in fact was made from spare parts from OCO-2. They both measure CO2 over the earth using reflected sunlight, and they both provide a significant amount of information about climate change. What is different is where they are in space. While the older sibling OCO-2 orbits the earth from pole to pole, the younger sibling OCO-3 is hitching a ride on the International Space Station (ISS)! The path that the ISS takes around the Earth is very different from the path of the OCO-2 satellite, and this means that OCO-3 sees the earth in a different way. OCO-3 will be able to measure different regions of the Earth at all different times of day, so we can see how CO2 is changing throughout the day over forests. OCO-3 is also able to swivel and point to a compact, city-sized area to get more details on CO2 behavior.

Along with OCO-2, OCO-3 will show us what the emissions of CO2 are around the Earth, and how it is absorbed by forests and impacting their health. We can use data from the instruments to find some plumes from power plants and cities. The two OCO siblings are helping us understand climate change and how we can prepare for the future climate.

 

The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) model intercomparison project (MIP) is a collaboration among atmospheric CO2 modelers to study the impact of assimilating OCO-2 retrieval data into atmospheric inversion models. The results from the set of simulations performed by this project have been released as a level-4 flux product.

 

Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3 (OCO-3)

OCO3

Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3
(OCO-3)

The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3, or OCO-3, is a future space instrument designed to investigate important questions about the distribution of carbon dioxide on Earth as it relates to growing urban populations and changing patterns of fossil fuel combustion.

NASA has developed and assembled the instrument using spare materials from the successful development and launch of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 in 2014 and will host the instrument on the Japanese Experiment Module- Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) onboard the International Space Station.

The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3, or OCO-3, is a future space instrument designed to investigate important questions about the distribution of carbon dioxide on Earth as it relates to growing urban populations and changing patterns of fossil fuel combustion.

NASA has developed and assembled the instrument using spare materials from the successful development and launch of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 in 2014 and will host the instrument on the Japanese Experiment Module- Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) onboard the International Space Station.

 
 

Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG)

Oceans Melting Greenland

https://twitter.com/omgnasa?lang=en

Probing melting glaciers from the sky, exploring the journey of ocean water

You see the tip of a melting iceberg; we see a plane, an ocean, a probe, and OMG… We jump inside!

NASA’s Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG) mission is right here on Earth and it’s showing us the precise role oceans are playing in melting glaciers. Some glaciers in Greenland have been around for a million years; however, in just the last few decades, they have begun disappearing due to climate change. Greenland’s glaciers are massive – if all of those glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise 25ft; that could translate to Washington DC being under water in the future. (Check your home town or favorite beach here) The glaciers are being attacked from all sides, from the air above and now OMG is discovering, from warm water underneath. The sea floor around Greenland has channels that snake up into the continental shelf and the warm salty water rides right up onto the front of the glacier. Warmer water, means faster glacier melt and losing more of our precious coastline.

“Amazing flight today through the dramatic canyons beyond Scoresby Sound. Got the first data in front of Vestfjord Glacier, which was almost 600m deep. Dropped 26 probes (total 193) and got 23 good profiles. #omgnasa” – Josh Willis, OMG Principal Investigator

OMG uses two planes, a satellite, a ship and elusive narwhals measure how the glaciers and oceans change from year to year. Aircraft launch 250 big, grey cylinder probes into the ocean every summer, the only time there is open water and less ice around most of Greenland. As the probes sink to the ocean floor, they radio back temperature and salinity measurements from the surface to the sea floor back to the team. In addition, both the shape and depth of the sea floor (bathymetry) were measured by ships and airplanes. Whales become oceanographers, gathering temperature, salinity and dive depth data while they feed at glacier waters. This project is changing the way scientists think about the melting of Greenland’s glaciers from underneath! See how temperature has changed in 5 years and what is going to happen in the 6th year, 2021. Come ride along with a narwhal whale and a NASA radio transmitter to discover more.

Check out other Earth Pathfinder projects to see if this melting can be reversed and follow OMG on the tracker at https://airbornescience.nasa.gov/tracker/#!/status/map?callsign=C-GJKB

NASA’s Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG) mission is right here on Earth and it’s showing us the precise role oceans are playing in melting glaciers. Some glaciers in Greenland have been around for a million years; however, in just the last few decades, they have begun disappearing due to climate change. Greenland’s glaciers are massive – if all of those glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise 25ft; that could translate to Washington DC being under water in the future.

 
 

PREFIRE

PREFIRE

Polar Radiant Energy in the Far-InfraRed Experiment (PREFIRE)

 
 
 

PREFIRE will document, for the first time, variability in spectral fluxes from 5-45 μm on hourly to seasonal timescales.

Two 6U CubeSats in distinct 470–650 km altitude, near-polar (82°-98° inclination) orbitseach carrying a miniaturized IR spectrometer, covering 0- 45 μm at 0.84 μm spectral resolution, operating for one seasonal cycle (a year).

  • The Arctic is Earth’s thermostat. It regulates the climate by venting excess energy received in the tropics.

  • Nearly 60% of Arctic emission occurs at wavelengths > 15 μm (FIR) that have never been systematically measured.

  • PREFIRE improves Arctic climate predictions by anchoring spectral FIR emission and atmospheric GHE.

PREFIRE will document, for the first time, variability in spectral fluxes from 5-45 μm on hourly to seasonal timescales. Two 6U CubeSats in distinct 470–650 km altitude, near-polar (82°-98° inclination) orbitseach carrying a miniaturized IR spectrometer, covering 0- 45 μm at 0.84 μm spectral resolution, operating for one seasonal cycle (a year).

 
 

[fourcol_six]

S-MODE

S-MODE

Sub-Mesoscale Ocean Dynamics Experiment (S-MODE)

 
 

https://science.jpl.nasa.gov/projects/S-MODE/
https://espo.nasa.gov/s-mode

The Sub-Mesoscale Ocean Dynamics Experiment (S-MODE) is a NASA Earth Venture Suborbital-3 (EVS-3) mission. S-MODE will use measurements from a novel combination of platforms and instruments, along with data analysis and modeling, to test the hypothesis that submesoscale ocean dynamics make important contributions to vertical exchange of climate and biological variables in the upper ocean. This will require coordinated application of newly-developed in situ and remote sensing techniques, and it will provide an unprecedented view of the physics of submesoscale eddies and fronts and their effects on vertical transport in the upper ocean.

The Sub-Mesoscale Ocean Dynamics Experiment (S-MODE) is a NASA Earth Venture Suborbital-3 (EVS-3) mission. S-MODE will use measurements from a novel combination of platforms and instruments, along with data analysis and modeling, to test the hypothesis that submesoscale ocean dynamics make important contributions to vertical exchange of climate and biological variables in the upper ocean. This will require coordinated application of newly-developed in situ and remote sensing techniques, and it will provide an unprecedented view of the physics of submesoscale eddies and fronts and their effects on vertical transport in the upper ocean.

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